Meikle, R.D. 1977: Flora of Cyprus 1
but modified and supplemented
1Secondary ridges of fruit with a double row of spines; mericarps almost flattened dorsally; styles short and thick
1'Secondary ridges of fruit with a single row of spines; mericarps not strongly compressed dorsally; styles usually long and slender
2Umbels sessile or subsessile, without obvious stalks
2'Umbels distinctly stalked
3Stems decumbent or sprawling, 2-20(-35) cm high; leaves rather fleshy with blunt segments; umbels with few, conspicuously unequal rays; bracts and bracteoles entire or shortly 3-fid; fruit c. 7 mm long
3'Stems erect or ascending; leaves and umbels not as above; fruit 2-5 mm long
4Stems usually less than 10 cm high, shorter than the long (6-16 cm) naked peduncles; umbels with few (3-5) rays; bracts pinnatisect, much exceeding umbellules at anthesis; petals small, subequal
4'Stems usually more than 10 cm high, longer than the peduncles; umbels 6-many-rayed; petals unequal, often radiant
5Leaf-segments and bracts narrowly linear or filiform; flowers and fruits becoming yellow when dried; central fruit of each umbellule subsessile and tuberculate
5'Leaf-segments and bracts broader; flowers rarely yellowish when dried; fruits reddish-purple or pale brown, central fruit of each umbellule not as above
6Spines of mature fruit distinctly confluent-winged at the base; plants generally 15-30(-50) cm high, usually branched; involucre not conspicuous
6'Spines of mature fruit not or very narrowly confluent-winged at base; involucre often conspicuous
7Plants slender, usually 10-30 cm high; rays 6-12, not becoming very erect or crowded in fruit; fruit spines 2-3 mm long, distinctly glochidiate
7'Plants robust, up to 200 cm high; rays usually very numerous, becoming erect and crowded in fruit; fruit spines short, generally less than 2 mm long, obscurely glochidiate
8Stems rather slender, usually less than 100 cm high, often distinctly flexuous, retrorse-hispid or subglabrous; ultimate segments of leaves up to 3 mm wide
8'Stems robust, usually more than 100 cm high, often erect and not distinctly flexuous, glabrous or thinly retrorse-hispid; ultimate segments of leaves 5-13 mm wide