P. H. Davis, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975R. D. Meikle, Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985
but supplemented
1Plants perennial with a tough, woody rootstock; disk purplish or pinkish; rays (when present) with a purplish base
1'Plants annual, rarely perennial; disk yellow; rays (when present) white
2Cauline leaves simply pinnatisect, with entire or occasionally dentate, oblong lobes; achenes with a very short, inconspicuous corona
2'Cauline leaves bipinnatisect; achene with a conspicuous, well-developed corona
3Plant densely grey-lanuginose, generally procumbent to ascending and only in coastal habitats
3'Plant glabrous, subglabrous or thinly pilose to pubescent, leaves sometimes densely hairy, but not lanuginose
4Receptacular scales linear-filiform or linear-subulate, 0.2-0.3 mm wide
4'Receptacular scales oblong-obovate or obcuneate, 1-4 mm wide
5Achenes longtitudinally ribbed, not or scarcely tuberculate
5'Achenes conspicuously tuberculate
6Achenes caducous at maturity, soon falling from receptacle
6'Achenes persistent at maturity, forming a dense subglobose head
7Phyllaries with a conspicuous, fuscous margin; tube of disk-florets goblet-shaped, abruptly dilated above the middle
7'Phyllaries with a pale, hyaline or stramineous margin; tube of disk-florets not abruptly dilated above the middle
8Capitula discoid; receptacular scales membranous, oblong-obovate; achenes clavate-obconical, not compressed dorsiventrally
8'Capitula radiate; receptacular scales cartilagenous, obcuneate; achenes more or less compressed dorsiventrally
9Receptacular scales truncate or obscurely muticous at apex, usually pallid in fruit
9'Receptacular scales conspicuously cuspidate, mucronate or acuminate, often dark bronze-purple in fruit
10Receptacular scales strongly acuminate; achenes 1.75-2.5 mm long, 2-3-ribbed on either face
10'Receptacular scales cuspidate or mucronate; achenes 2.5-3 mm long, often (but not always) distinctly 8-10-ribbed on either face