Jäger, E.J. 2011: Rothmaler, Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, Gefäßpflanzen: Grundband, ed. 20Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora of Cyprus 2Suchorukow, A. 2007: Einige neue und wenig bekannte Taxa aus der Familie Chenopodiaceae in Europa und im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet. – Feddes Repert. 118: 73-83Tutin, T.G., Burges, N.A., Chater, A.O., Edmondson, J.R., Heywood, V.H., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. 1993: Flora Europaea 1, ed. 2Zohary, M. 1966: Flora Palaestina 1
but modified
1Fruiting bracteoles obdeltoid, connate to above middle; leaves entire
1'Fruiting bracteoles deltoid, triangular or orbicular, almost free or free to middle; leaves usually toothed or lobed
2Shrubs, woody subshrubs or perennial herbs
2'Herbaceous annuals
3Flowers in small axillary clusters; never forming leafless inflorescences; bracteoles indurating or becoming red and fleshy in fruit; stems procumbent or ascending
3'Flowers in axillary and/or terminal clusters, forming leafless inflorescences; bracteoles somewhat acrescent in fruit, but not fleshy; stems prostrate or erect
4Bracteoles not tuberculate, broadly ovate or semi-orbicular, entire or toothed
4'Bracteoles of spicate pistillate flowers with well developed tubercles, deltoid or rhombic, unequally toothed or lobed
5Leaves densely grey-mealy or lepidote
5'Leaves green or thinly mealy
6Fruiting bracteoles widest at middle, not becoming hard in fruit
6'Fruiting bracteoles mostly widest below middle, lower half becoming hard in fruit
7Flowers in terminal, usually leafless, often long panicles; leaves triangular-rhombic to triangular-hastate with shortly cuneate basis
7'Flowers in axillary clusters; leaves ovate-rhombic to rhombic-triangular with broadly cuneate basis
8Leaves entire, not hastate, sometimes lower leaves oblong-hastate
8'Leaves (even the upper) usually broadly rhombic- or triangular-hastate
9Bracteoles triangular, connate to about ¼, (1.5-)2.5-7.0(-10.0) mm long
9'Bracteoles orbicular or broadly rhombic, connate to middle, (1.5-)2.0-3.5(-5.0) mm long