Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978: Flora Palaestina 3Jäger, E.J. 2011: Rothmaler, Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, Gefäßpflanzen: Grundband, ed. 20Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora of Cyprus 2
1Stems developed; leaves not in a basal rosette
1'Stems not developed, or very short; leaves in a basal rosette
2Leaves alternate
2'Leaves opposite
3Leaves sparsely pilose or glabrescent; plant annual
3'Leaves silky-hairy, silvery; plant perennial with a tough, woody rootstock
4Lowermost bracts similar to upper; whole plant viscid-glandular; leaves not fleshy
4'Lowermost bracts foliaceous, much larger and more conspicuous than the upper; whole plant not viscid-glandular; leaves fleshy
5Inflorescences 10-15(-20) mm long, cylindrical to ovoid; lowermost bracts usually much shorter than spike
5'Inflorescences 4-8 mm long, more or less globose; lowermost bracts usually as long as spike or longer
6Bracts and sepals conspicuously hairy or lanuginose
6'Bracts and sepals sometimes ciliate, but not conspicuously hairy or lanuginose
7Scapes strongly ribbed, usually much longer than leaves; inflorescences conspicuously silky-hairy
7'Scapes obscurely ribbed or terete, often shorter than leaves, or not much exceeding them; inflorescences hairy or woolly, but not conspicuously silky
8Bracts and corolla-lobes broadly and bluntly ovate-orbicular; leaves tapering to a slender apex, commonly with a few, conspicuous, upward-pointing marginal teeth
8'Bracts and corolla-lobes ovate-acute or ovate-acuminate; leaves entire or subentire, acute but not long-acuminate
9Corolla-lobes broadly ovate, shortly acuminate; inflorescence subglobose or semi-globose, woolly; scapes thickening and becoming rigidly revolute in fruit
9'Corolla-lobes ovate-acuminate, acumen often long and slender; inflorescences ovoid or cylindrical, hairy but scarcely woolly; scapes not much thickened nor rigidly revolute in fruit
10Scapes conspicuously ribbed; bracts usually long-acuminate; abaxial sepals connate almost to apex
10'Scapes terete or obscurely striate; bracts not long-acuminate; abaxial sepals free
11Inflorescence a subglobose or shortly oblong spike
11'Inflorescence a narrow, cylindrical or caudate spike
12Corolla-lobes broadly ovate or almost orbicular, c. 2 mm wide; median nerve ending in apex of bract
12'Corolla-lobes ovate-acute, c. 0.8 mm wide; median nerve of bract shortly excurrent
13Leaves broadly ovate or elliptical
13'Leaves not as above
14Fruit capsule with 4-14(-17) seeds, dehiscing in the middle or above; seeds (1.0-)1.2-1.8(-2,1) mm long; leaves entire or remotely dentate
14'Fruit capsule with (4-)9-35(-46) seeds, dehiscing in the lower third; seeds (0.6-)0.8-1.2(-1.5) mm long; leaves irregularly dentate or lobed in the lower half
15Leaves elongate, narrowly linear, entire or subentire, fleshy; bracts and sepals not conspicuously ciliate
15'Leaves usually pinnatisect or lobed, not fleshy; bracts and sepals usually conspicuously ciliate